Blue green algae: Blue-green algae are known to fix atmospheric nitrogen. These have been found to be very effective on the rice and banana plantation. In field condition, overall increase in the gram yield of rice is amounted to about 586 kg ha-1. In case of crops other than rice, algalization increased nearly 34% yield. India is one of the countries where agro-chemical conditions appear to be favourable where blue-green algae technology has been put forward. Field scale production of algae biofertilizer is also possible. The 20-25 kg dry algae can be obtained on 40 m field. Adopting this method, 15 t ha-1 of wet BGA can be obtained by the farmers. Farmers can also produce algae for count yard of the house.
Blue Green Algae Biofertilizer Technology
for rice based cropping system of Western Orissa
o o o Orissa state(81 27’ E, 17 49’ N to 87 39’ o E,29 34’ N)is one among the few principal rice growing states of India. Based on soil type, climatic water balance, intensity and duration of rain fall and topography Orissa is divided into 9 agro climatic zones. Out of these 9th agro climatic zone, Western and mid central table land comprises major rice growing areas of Orissa. Bargarh and adjoining regions harvest rice crop twice a year and serve as a rice bowl for Orissa and its neighboring state. As, rice is a staple food for all most all people of this region, study on the modern rice cultivation practice and specifically soil nutrient study have made tremendous interest for agricultural scientists, officials, workers and farmers of this region. Nitrogen is one of the most essential fertilizers for crop plants. Though it constitutes over 70% of our atmosphere, the crop plants are unable to exploit it directly from the nature. To support crop production the fertilizer consumption has increased to many folds. Several thousands tones of chemical fertilizers consumed per year(two cropping seasons) alone in Bargarh and adjoining regions of Western Orissa .Increasing cost of chemical fertilizers, reduction/abolition of subsidy, widening gap between supply and demand together with low level of purchasing power of majority farmers of this region have indeed created an embarrassing problem. Also the chemical based system of rising crop has degraded the soil environment (altered C/N ratio) which has cumulated in reduced agrochemical utilizing efficiency of crop plants. Chemical characteristics of soil samples of many places of Western Orissa also
Algae are tiny cells, often about 5 microns in diameter. These small cells cannot absorb a huge pharmaceutical molecule. Instead, the tiny cells strip the molecule of individual elements, especially carbon, which detoxifies the pharmaceutical. Therefore, when the algae biofertilizer enters a food crop, there is no pharmaceutical molecule left to enter the crop, only the bionutrients needed by the plant.
Algae can recover and recycle the nutrients in wastewater very efficiently and deliver the nutrients in a form immediately bioavailable to field crops. Field studies have shown farmers can cut chemical fertilizer costs 50 to 80% with algae biofertilizer.